CONTENTS
 
Foreword by Professor Kendric Smith  ix
Preface  xi


Introduction xiii
    Key points xvii 
    References  xviii 


Chapter 1. Basics of the action of monochromatic visible and near infrared  
                 radiation on cells
                 1.1 Basic laws of photochemistry 1
                 1.2 Biological models for experiments
                 1.3 Dependences of cellular responses on dose, intensity and wavelength  
                       of continuous wave light 
                       1.3.1 Growth stimulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic   
                                microorganisms 
                       1.3.2 Stimulation of various biochemical reactions in mammalian 
                                cells 
12 
                       1.3.3 Action spectra 18 
                 1.4 Dependences of cellular responses on parameters of pulsed light 22
                       1.4.1 Main characteristics of pulsed light  22 
                       1.4.2 Nonmonotonic behavior of dose dependences 22
                       1.4.3 Dependences on pulse repetition rate 29
                       1.4.4 Difference between cellular responses to continuous wave  
                                and pulsed light of the same wavelength and dose 
33 
                 Chapter 1 -  Key Points  33
                 References 34 


Chapter 2. Instrumentation and irradiation procedure  41 
                 2.1 Radiation sources 41
                       2.1.1 Conventional light sources 41 
                       2.1.2 Lasers and LEDs  42 
                 2.2 Wavelength selection when working with conventional sources  43 
                 2.3 Dosimetry and radiometric instrumentation 44 
                 2.4 Irradiation procedure  44 
                 2.5 Terms and units  48
                Chapter 2 - Key Points 49 
                References 49


Chapter 3. Primary and secondary mechanisms of the action of monochromatic  
                 visible and near infrared radiation on cells
53 
                 3.1 Photobioregulatory mechanisms based on specialized      
                       and nonspecialized photoacceptors
53 
                 3.2 Photoacceptors for low-power laser effects 53 
                       3.2.1. Mammalian cells  53
                       3.2.2. Prokaryotic cell Escherichia coli  64 
                 3.3 Primary mechanisms of light action 68 
                 3.4 Secondary reactions of light action 73 
                       3.4.1 Initiation of DNA replication and division of Escherichia coli 73 
                       3.4.2 Proliferation of mammalian cells 79 
                 Chapter 3 - Key Points 83 
                 References  83


Chapter 4. Explanation of controversies and limitations of low-power laser  
                 effects on cellular level 
95 
             4.1 Magnitude of low-power laser effects 95
             4.2 Diversity of low-power laser effects 101
             4.3 Stimulation vs. inhibition 102 
             4.4 Biological limitations of low-power laser effects 106
             4.5 Dependence on the physiological status of the host organism 111
             Chapter 4 -  Key Points 113
             References 114 


Chapter 5. Responses of neurons and lymphocytes to direct irradiation 123 
                 5.1. Light action on electrophysiological parameters of nerves 124
                 5.2. Partial derepression of genome after irradiation of human     
                        lymphocytes  with He-Ne laser
133
                 Chapter 5 -  Key Points  147
                 References 148 


Chapter 6. Responses of blood and spleen cells to irradiation in vitro 155 
                 6.1 Effects of cellular composition and radiation parameters  
                       when murine splenocytes are irradiated
157
                 6.2 Laser radiation has no statistically significant effect on           
                       chemiluminescence  of healthy human blood but suppresses  
                       chemiluminescence of blood in patients with acute respiratory illness
166
                 6.3 Laser radiation at 820 suppresses the chemiluminescence of blast  
                       cells in patients with hemoblastoses
171
                 6.4 Different sensitivity to irradiation of cells from tumor-bearing  
                       and healthy organisms 
181
                 Chapter 6 - Key Points 193
                 References 194


Chapter 7. Effects of visible and near infrared radiation on cultured cells  201 
                 7.1 Light effects on proliferation 201
                 7.2 Viability and clonogenicity of cells after irradiation 208
                 7.3 Changes in migratory, secretory, and metabolic functions of  
                       irradiated cells
213
                 7.4 Radiomodifying action of He-Ne laser radiation: decrease of  
                       cytotoxic response of cells to ionizing radiation
219
                 Chapter 7 - Key Points 226
                 References 226


 Chapter 8. Activation of metabolism of nonphotosynthesizing  microorganisms 235
                  8.1 Action of monochromatic visible and near infrared radiation on  
                        growth and division of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
235
                  8.2 Light activation of germination of endospores 250
                  Chapter 8 -  Key Points 253 
                  References 254


Chapter 9. What can one learn from experiments on cellular level? 261 
                  9.1. Possible optimal light parameters for low-power laser therapy 261
                  9.2  A redox shift in a cell due to irradiation - does it belong  to a more  
                         general principle?
264 
                  9.3  Is knowledge of cellular responses to low-power laser  
                         radiation useful for other fields of cell biology?
266 
                  References 267


Subject index  271 


Glossary 279