32 Years of  Laser  Control of Atomic Motion
(Trapping, Cooling, Atom  Optics etc.)

    Beginning in 1968, various ideas were being prosecuted of controlling atomic motion (cooling and trapping of atoms) by means of laser radiation.  All these atomic cooling experiments allowed the energy of neutral atoms to be reduced to so low a value as made possible their spatial localization by means of electric, magnetic, and  laser  fields. This opened  up  new experimental possibilities to sharply reduce the temperature of already  cold atoms, and a new stage of investigations thus began into a deeper laser cooling.

   The Laboratory of Laser Spectroscopy was the first in the world to launch experiments on controlling atomic motion with laser radiation. Today, tens of laboratories throughout the world are being engaged in this most actively developing field of atomic and laser physics.

The Chronology of Laser Cooling (Fig.1, Table 1)

      Here  is Professor V. Letokhov's works list devoted to the problem of laser cooling of  atoms and related topics. Numbers of the works are extracted from the full publication list which is ordered chronologically.


1.   1,5 K  S.V. Andreev, V.I. Balykin, V.S. Letokhov, V.G. Minogin
 JETP Lett. 34, 442 (1981)
2.   0,07 K  J.V. Prodan, W.D. Phillips, and H. Metcalf
 Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1149 (1982
3.   3,5 mK  V.I. Balykin, V.S. Letokhov, and A.I. Sidorov 
 JETP Lett. 40, 1026 (1984)
4.  V.S. Letokhov, V.G. Minogin, and B.D. Pavlik 
 Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1328 (1977); [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 698 (1977)]
5.   240 mK  S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J.E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin
 Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985)
6.   40 mK  P. Lett, R. Watts, C. Westbrook, W.D. Phillips, P. Gould, H. Metcalf
 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 169 (1988
7.   2 mK  A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji
 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988)
8.   100 nK  M. Kasevich and S. Chu
 Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741 (1992
9.   20 nK  M.H. Anderson, J.R. Ensher, M.R. Matthews, C.E. Wieman, E.A. Cornell
 Science 269, 198 (1995)

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